Report to COSPAR
Liu, and B. Ye 16 Developing Huairou web Site G. Session II. Gan, Y. Li and J.
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Ding, Y. Liu, P. Chen, and C.
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Conferences of Interest to Astrochemists
Liu, S. Plunkett, X. Xie, et al. Watanabe, H. Shirai, and Y. Mende, et al.
And Rakhmatulin R. It is the largest space research organization with about 50 staff working in space research and 50 staff on Earth observation. FMI is known for its scientiic modeling capabilities including meteorological, climatic, and space plasma models and simulations. FMI has a competitive record of building space instruments for planetary, space research and Earth observation purposes, gath- ering and analyzing data, developing theoretical models for data interpretation, and publishing the results in leading peer-reviewed journals.
The northern location of Finland is optimal for operating ground-based instruments monitoring space phenomena related to aurora. Figure 7. The com- GOMOS occultation measurements bined ozone data set is analyzed by itting a time series model to the data. The best estimate for high vertical resolution homogeneous ozone the point of inlection was found to be the year time series of 26 years. At all latitudes and altitudes from 35 km lar occultation instrument from — to 50 km we ind a clear change in ozone trend and the Global Ozone Monitoring by Occul- before and after the inlection time.
- The Chinese puzzle.
- An Introduction to Linguistics.
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- Aerosol Inhalation: Recent Research Frontiers: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Aerosol Inhalation, Lung Transport, Deposition and the Relation to the Environment: Recent Research Frontiers, Warsaw, Poland, September 14–16, 1995!
- Revival and Religion Since 1700: Essays for John Walsh.
In the tropics between 30 and 35 ozone over time. As both instruments share km ozone has started to decrease after a small a common measurement period from — increase in the period of — At mid- , it is possible to inter-calibrate the data latitudes near 20 km the ozone loss has still sets. We investigate how well these meas- increased. Between 35 — 55 The state of soil freezing in the Northern km, SAGE II sunrise and sunset measure- hemisphere affects in particular the transfer ments differ from each other. Differences can be ex- latitudes, the onset of soil freezing marks the plained qualitatively by the diurnal variation point when the transpiration of gases is signif- of ozone in the stratosphere recently observed icantly reduced Furthermore, the thermal state by SMILES and modeled by chemical trans- of the soil controls the mass and rate of water port models.
Advanced forward models predicting In addition, the contrast between the permit- the inluence of freezing on the microwave tivity of water in solid and liquid states is response of soils have also been developed higher at L-band than at shorter wavelengths. Ongoing research These make L-band observations a viable tool at FMI aims at extending indings from these for monitoring of soil surface properties.
The Finnish Aalto-1 will be launched later end of or early with longer m tether.
Piece of reeled E-sail tether Vlasiator is a new hybrid-Vlasov code, which has been developed for global scale simula- change in emission properties of soils related tions in the QuESpace ERC Starting grant to soil freezing. In practice, coarse scale ob- project that ended in fall This task was so mas- state will also be possible in the future at an sive that many thought it impossible.
Vla- siator results show rich plasma phenomena The electric sail E-sail is a Finnish inven- that are much more complicated than has been tion that uses natural solar wind momentum thought earlier. Many phenomena in the runs lux for producing spacecraft propulsion. A of explaining the phenomena have not been closely related but simpler single-tether Cou- placed in a larger context lomb drag device plasma brake could be As the solar wind impinges on the magne- used for deorbiting small and medium-sized tosphere, it forms a shock similarly as there satellites with high eficiency to eliminate the is a shock wave in front of a boat moving in growing problem of space debris.
The Vlasiator team investigated noiseless and uniformly discretized functions the plasma processes within the foreshock similar to those seen in experimental data. Charac- teristics of the backstreaming ion populations and associated electromagnetic waves are in quantitative agreement with the properties of Figure 7. Global plasma density in an MHD simulation left, representing the previous state-of-the-art in global simulations and Vlasiator center, the new benchmark in global kinetic simulations.
Color- coding is plasma density, with blue sparse plasma and red dense shocked plasma. Solar wind lows from the right of the igure, and the Earth is the small blue dot within the black region. Vlasiator is able to capture the ion foreshock and the magnetosheath kinetic phenomena the waves in lower right in great precision due to the noise-free 3D distribution functions, which are shown for the magnetosheath top-right , and ion foreshock bottom-right.
These kinetic features are absent in the MHD description because it represents plasma only with single-luid Maxwellian distribution functions. The total annual resource allocation in space research at the Department exceeds 50 FTEs.
This work is conducted within the framework of the Kumpula Space Centre in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute and from the School of Electrical Engineering of Aalto University. In addition, there are some remote sensing activities at the De- partment of Geosciences and Geography and space-related applied mathematics at the Department of Mathematics, thus in total amount of space activities of the University of Helsinki is approximately 60 FTEs.
In our space research resulted in about peer-reviewed articles. The main ields of our space research activities are, studies of interstellar medium and star formation, stellar astrophysics, extragalactic astronomy, cosmology, space physics, the Sun and solar activity, the planetary system, and planetary geophysics. In the studies of the interstellar medium our focus is in the early stages of the star formation process.
Here we use observations from the ground e. In stellar astronomy our focus is in stellar magnetic activity where we con- duct both observational and theoretical work. We also study high-energy phenomena in the Solar corona in and Clusters of Galaxies using X-ray satellite data, including obser- vations using guest observer time for large space observatories like the XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku, and with X-ray detectors developed in our own space projects, e.
In space-based cosmology our Planck team is in the core data analysis team of cosmic microwave background observations, which were released in In space physics, our emphasis is on Solar-Terrestrial relations, Figure 8. Herschel has shown that cloud ilaments form an important step in the star formation process. In this Herschel far-infrared image, a cold interstellar cloud is seen as a blue ilamentary structure against the warmer background.
The cloud is fragmenting and already contains a number of young stellar ob- jects. In planetary research our focus is on the orbital determination, shape and structure of as- teroids and comets, and the surface regolith, atmospheres and the magnetosphere of solar system bodies. In planetary geophysics we study impact cratering processes combining space research and geophysics methods. We have set as our goal to become a leading European astronomy and space research community and the best doctoral training unit by Cosmological results in October after over four years of ob- based on the irst 15 months of Planck obser- serving the microwave sky.
They The Planck group at the Department of Phys- include a high-resolution temperature map of ics is responsible for producing the sky maps the cosmic microwave background CMB , for the three lowest frequencies, as well as its angular power spectrum, and updated a number of related tasks, including calibra- values of cosmological parameters based on tion, estimation of residual noise correlations Planck data. A ULF power both in the magnetic ield and in number of features theoretically predicted dynamic pressure than their surroundings, and by the standard cosmological model, but not that the level and distribution of the power observed previously, were detected by Planck depends on the properties of the CME-driver.
Our study showed that its redshift variations integrated Sachs-Wolfe sheath regions cause strong and long-time de- effect due to the gravitational effect of mat- pletions of the electron luxes at the outer Van ter concentrations buy which the CMB radia- Allen radiation belt. Stellar magnetic activity Solar-terrestrial physics In stellar magnetic activity research we have In Solar-terrestrial physics we have obtained for the irst time reproduced solar-like dy- new results on the structure of coronal mass namo action in a self-consistent 3D-MHD nu- ejection driven sheath regions and how they merical model of turbulent convection.
Studies of Galactic interstellar clouds were Sheath regions ahead of fast coronal mass continued with the Herschel and Planck satel- ejections CME are important drivers of lites. The studies concentrate on the physical strong disturbances in the geospace.
Related Microsatellites as Research Tools (Cospar)
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